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Research Guides

Citing Sources: Business Examples

This guide offers resources to help you document the sources you're citing in your research papers and projects.

APA Rules for Specialized Business Sources

Many business resources consist of proprietary information. Therefore, access is limited to those who pay a subscription fee. Geisel Library has done this for you to ensure you have the best information to use for your research.

The purpose of APA citations is to provide for the reader the location where you found your information. If that information is not freely available, APA requires that you follow additional rules for citing those sources.

  1. In a typical article or book citation, you DO NOT include the database name or URL where you found the article or book. Instead, you include the journal or book title. When using a specialized business database you DO NEED to include the database name.
  2. In a typical freely available website citation, you ALWAYS include a DOI or URL directly to the web content. Because it is a direct link, there is no need to include "Retrieved from" or "Accessed from" before the DOI or URL. However, when using a specialized library business database that requires a login or is session specific..."provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work" (APA Manual, 2020, p. 299).
  3. "To help identify works outside the peer-reviewed academic literature...provide a description of the work in square brackets after the title and before the period" (APA Manual, 2020, 292).

Examples

Euromonitor - report/analysis

References:

Euromonitor International. (2022a, January 18). Business dynamics: Australia. Passport Database.
        https://geisel.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/magazine/homemain

Euromonitor International. (2022b, August 16). Consumer lifestyles in Australia. Passport Database.
        https://geisel.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/magazine/homemain

In-text citation:

...Millennials and Gen X are more excited about trying new products versus... (Euromonitor International, 2022b).

According to Euromonitor (2022a), Australia’s workforce stands among the global leaders in terms of higher education attainment and high-skilled labour" as of 2021 (n.p.).

Euromonitor - data

References:

Euromonitor International. (2018, August). Australia, mobile phones, company shares, retail volume, 2013-2018
        [Data set]. Passport Database. https://geisel.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/
        portal/magazine/homemain

In-text citation:

In 2015, Apple comprised 56 percent of the retail mobile phone market in Australia (Euromonitor International, 2018).

Note: In APA, percent is spelled out rather than using the % symbol.


Mergent - report or 10-K

References:

Mergent, Inc. (2021). PEPSICO annual report. Mergent Online. Retrieved January 31, 2022, from

     https://geisel.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www.mergentonline.com/

In-text cite:

Turnover in senior leadership resulting in lower than expected 2nd quarter earnings (Mergent, 2021).

Mergent - data

References:

Mergent, Inc. (2022, January). PepsiCo, Inc. annual ratios, 2016-2020 [Data set]. Mergent Online Database.  

     https://www.mergentonline.com/companyfinancials.php?pagetype=ratios&compnumber=6581.

In-text cite:

42.3% of brand share is attributed to energy drink sales (Mergent, 2022).


Annual Report from a company's web site

Whole Foods Market. (2011). 2010 annual report to shareholders.
          http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/pdfs/ar10.pdf

In-text cite:

Twelve new stores opened in Massachusetts during the third quarter of 2010 (Whole Foods Market, 2011, p. 76).


MarketLine Industry Profile from Business Source Premier

MarketLine. (2019, March). MarketLine industry profile: Global pharmaceuticals. Business Source
          Premier Database. https://geisel.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
          authtype=ip,uid&profile=bsi

In-text cite:

The pharmaceuticals industry experienced mixed profits across markets due to changes in governmental regulations (MarketLine, 2019).