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Nursing: NU341

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Reviewing Types of Articles

Which of the abstracts below is for a primary research study? What types of articles are the other abstracts for?

Background: Children are extremely vulnerable to complications of influenza, and the most effective prevention strategy is receiving the vaccine annually. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all providers offer the influenza vaccine to unvaccinated children during routine health care visits and hospitalizations. Local Problem: The CDC reported only 59.3% of children in the United States received the influenza vaccine during the 2015-2016 flu season. A large academic pediatric hospital inpatient hematology/oncology unit was identified as having an inadequate influenza vaccine screening and administration process. Interventions: An influenza vaccine screening tool served to identify eligible patients and allow electronic access to notify providers to order influenza vaccines by generating a physician order notification. Education was provided. An interprofessional approach was taken, and collaboration between all departments - nursing, providers, pharmacy, and information technology - was significant in enhancing the process. Results: Data analyses revealed the rate of influenza vaccine administration among eligible hematology/oncology patients was 5.88% pre-intervention and 43.9% post-intervention. The System Usability Scale (SUS) by Brooke (1996) was used to gain feedback from nurses and evaluate the quality improvement (QI) initiative. Each SUS was calculated; scores ranged from 30 to 100. These results are variable, and thus, indicate that the process steps could be further streamlined to improve ease and efficiency. Conclusion: Implementation of a well-designed influenza vaccine screening tool combined with an automatic trigger to communicate with the provider increases the likelihood that the patient will receive the influenza vaccine. Implications for healthcare providers should focus on use of the electronic health record to improve the influenza vaccine screening and administration process for pediatric inpatients, especially immunocompromised patients.

Abstract 1 is for a...
literature review: 8 votes (22.86%)
pilot study: 6 votes (17.14%)
quality improvement project: 16 votes (45.71%)
qualitative study: 5 votes (14.29%)
Total Votes: 35

Background: Scientific literature suggests that art interventions can assist children with cancer cope with physical and psychosocial difficulties associated with cancer treatment. Little is known about how the making of tangible visual art can be helpful and which proposed therapeutic mechanisms are clinically important. Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to assess and synthesize the research evidence regarding the role of art therapy/art-making interventions for promoting the well-being of children with cancer undergoing treatment. Methods: A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], CINAHL, PsycINFO) and EBM Reviews including Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (OVID) and manual review of references in articles accessed were undertaken. Inclusion criteria were as follows: research studies of any design; children with cancer undergoing treatment (2-21 years old), and art therapy/art-making intervention. Data extraction and quality appraisal were undertaken. Data were analyzed with an author-developed review sheet and synthesized into a table. Results: Six articles reporting 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were based on qualitative (n = 3) and mixed quantitative/qualitative (n = 3) methodologies. Three outcome categories emerged that outline potential therapeutic roles of art interventions. Conclusions: Though sparse and developmental in nature, the existing evidence suggests that art interventions may potentially promote the well-being of children undergoing cancer treatment by reducing anxiety, fear, and pain and promoting collaborative behaviors; enhancing communication with the treatment team; and counteracting the disruption of selfhood that cancer treatment evokes.

Implications for Practice: Further and higher-quality research is warranted before routinely integrating standardized art interventions into the treatment protocols for children with cancer.

Abstract 2 is for a...
primary research study (quantitative): 2 votes (6.67%)
literature review: 27 votes (90%)
primary research study (qualitative): 0 votes (0%)
quality improvement study: 1 votes (3.33%)
Total Votes: 30

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of virtual reality (VR) on acute pain in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease experiencing vaso-occlusive crisis in one acute-care pediatric emergency department (ED). The randomized sample consisted of 15 participants aged 8 to 17 years admitted to the ED with vaso-occlusive crisis. The control group received standard ED treatment consisting of intravenous (IV) narcotics administered every 30 minutes as needed for up to 3 doses while the intervention group received VR for 15 minutes along with standard treatment. Pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scale. Data were analyzed using an independent samples t test. Counter to hypotheses, results showed pain scores reported by patients using the NRS were not significantly lower when using VR (M=5.71, SD=2.752) than for those who received standard treatment. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the FLACC pain scores (behavioral scale) after 5 minutes of using the VR (p=0.01). Additionally, the average length of stay was shorter for the patients in the intervention group. Although the self-reported pain scores by patients in this sample did not vary significantly when using VR, there was a significant difference in the observed pain scores. This pilot study's data findings support the use of VR with standard treatment in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease who present to the ED in vaso-occlusive crisis. Using multi-modal pain management strategies may decrease length of stay and improve pain scores.

Abstract 3 is for a...
quantitative pilot study: 23 votes (71.88%)
qualitative pilot study: 6 votes (18.75%)
literature review: 0 votes (0%)
quantitative randomized controlled trial: 3 votes (9.38%)
Total Votes: 32

Adolescents are typically admitted for a short period of time after inpatient surgery, leaving much of their recovery to occur at home. Pain, and thus pain management, is a major component of recovery at home. Research among pediatric outpatient surgical patients has found that pain experienced in the community setting after discharge is often severe and is related to knowledge deficits resulting in inadequate pain management. However, there is little research on community pain management after inpatient surgery. This study aimed to explore the pain experiences of seven adolescents who underwent inpatient surgery. This study used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a methodology. This study took place at a pediatric tertiary care hospital in Canada. 7 adolescents participated, all of whom underwent inpatient surgery with admission between 2-14 days in length. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 2 to 6 weeks post-discharge. Three themes were identified that described their experiences, including managing severe pain at home with minimal preparation, changes in the parent–child relationship, and difficulties returning to school and regular activities. Involving adolescents directly in discharge education, particularly with the use of novel interventions and coaching, may improve outcomes. Adolescent patients experience significant pain after discharge from hospital after inpatient surgical procedures. Adolescents are in need of adolescent-specific pain management education to increase skill and knowledge and address pain management-related misconceptions. Greater emphasis on involving adolescents in their own pain care and novel intervention could prove useful in improving outcomes.

Abstract 4 is for a...
quantitative primary research study: 5 votes (18.52%)
qualitative primary research study: 17 votes (62.96%)
quality improvement initiative: 4 votes (14.81%)
literature review: 1 votes (3.7%)
Total Votes: 27

Abstract 1:

Duvall, A. (2019). Improving Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Inpatients. Pediatric Nursing45(3), 142–127.

Abstract 2:

Derman, Y. E., & Deatrick, J. A. (2016). Promotion of Well-being During Treatment for Childhood Cancer: A Literature Review of Art Interventions as a Coping Strategy. Cancer Nursing, 39(6), E1-E16.

Abstract 3:

Diaz-Hennessey, S., & O’Shea, E. R. (2019). Virtual Reality: Augmenting the Acute Pain Experience in Children. Pediatric Nursing, 45(3), 122–127.

Abstract 4:

Dagg, B., Forgeron, P., Macartney, G., & Chartrand, J. (2020). Adolescent Patients’ Management of Postoperative Pain after Discharge: A Qualitative Study. Pain Management Nursing, 21(6), 565–571.



In your group:

  • Identify the section(s) of the example article that will help you address your group's assigned paper section.
  • Answer the additional prompts.

Example article:

Diaz-Hennessey, S., & O’Shea, E. R. (2019). Virtual Reality: Augmenting the Acute Pain Experience in Children. Pediatric Nursing, 45(3), 122–127.

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