Collected by USAID and UNESCO, the Global Education Database is a great place to gather international education statistics, including female/male student enrollment, graduation rates, and literacy rates.
As the U.S. governmental agency dedicated to the study of education in the United States, the U.S. Department of Education's website makes available a wealth of research, reports, analysis, and statistics to practitioners and education researchers. Also of note are their publications and listings of education related grant opportunities.
Use the following resources to locate "born digital" research written by various think tanks, policy institutions, non-governmental organizations, and research foundations.
The Annie E. Casey Foundation performs extensive research on the state of the child in the United States. Much of the research focuses on social or community initiatives and their role in improving child development. Publication of note: Kids Count series.
Use this website to research the state of Catholic schools in the United States. A tremendous amount of data is available on this websites including enrollment data of K-12 and higher education institutions and SAT and other national assessment test results.
Serving as the premier professional association for public educators in the United States, the NEA makes available a wealth of information on its website. The "Issues and Action" link brings you to original reports and the "Tools and Ideas" link brings you to newsletters and lesson plan ideas.
Hosted by the Rutgers Graduate School of Education, the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) deals specifically with the education of children aged 3-4 years. Topics with available research and data include program assessment, special education issues, English language learning, and school readiness.