|Text (603) 556-8883|
|Call (603) 641-7306|
|Make an Appointment|
|Area of Research||Definition/Examples|
|Cultural or historical studies||
Original records* that were either created at the time historical events occurred, or well after those events in the form of memoirs and oral histories.
*Records could be news articles, images, government reports, speeches, social media, interviews, etc.
|Literary studies||Original literary works, as well as letters, diaries, notes, and marginalia written by authors.|
Articles reporting on the results of original research, as well as the data* gathered by scientists.
*Data could be measurements, images, audio, interviews, etc.
Use the charts to help you understand the differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources. Please consult your professor or a librarian if you are unsure about identifying a particular source.
|DEFINITION||An original object or document: the raw research or first-hand information.||Comments on, interpretations of, or discussions about the primary or original source.||Provide background information or compilations by synthesizing information gathered from other sources, usually secondary sources.|
|TIMING||Primary sources usually come first in the timing of scholarly publication.||Secondary sources usually come second in the timing of scholarly publication.||Tertiary sources usually come third or last in the timing of scholarly publication.|
(studying terrorism in the wake of the 9/11 attacks)
|National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. (2004). The 9/11 Commission report: final report. New York: Norton.||Carpenter, T. (2005, Winter). Missed Opportunities: The 9/11 Commission Report and US Foreign Policy. Mediterranean Quarterly, 16(1), 52–61.||
(studying creative writings about terrorism)
|Updike, J. (2006). Terrorist (a novel). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.||Steyn, M. (2006, July 31). Why John Updike's book is a bomb. Maclean's, 119 (29), 58–59.||
(studying the psychological effects of the 9/11 Attacks on children)
|Schuster, M. A., B. D."A National Survey of Stress Reactions After the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 345, No. 20, November 15, 2001, pp. 1507–1512.||Alexander, G. (2007). International relations theory meets world politics. In Understanding the Bush Doctrine: Psychology and strategy in an age of terrorism (pp. 39–64). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.||
|United States. (2003). Project Bioshield Act of 2003 report (to accompany H.R. 2122). Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.||Alexander, D., & Klein, S. (2003, December). Biochemical terrorism: too awful to contemplate, too serious to ignore: subjective literature review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183 (6), 491–497.||
This chart was adapted from a research guide prepared by the Library at the University of North Carolina Wilmington.