***The 6th edition (2010) of the APA Manual has recently been updated to the 7th edition (2019). Check with your professor which edition they want you to use.***
In addition to the official APA manual and the examples to the right, several institutions have created helpful online guides.
The APA Manual (6th ed.) does not offer detailed information or examples about citing images such as graphs, charts, maps, drawings and photographs. Most of what you will find is on pp. 150-167 (Section on 'Figures').
Brief information about citing audiovisual images such as audio and video clips is on pp. 209-210 of the 6th edition.
Basically, images should be cited as you would cite any other type of work. One addition is that all image formats (type of material) should be noted in their description with the use of [Brackets]. Examples: [Graph], [Photograph], [Map], [Video file], [Audio podcast], etc.
Further guidelines and examples about how to cite images in the Reference List, In-Text and within captions (when the image has been reproduced) is explained below.
Please note: that this guide is intended to offer recommendations for citing images according to current practices and interpretation of the rules in the APA 6th edition. Please consult with your instructor to determine whether alternate guidelines are to be applied.
Image author's Last name, Image author's First name initial. (Year of creation [if available, otherwise n.d.]). Description or title of image [Image format]. Retrieved from URL or Database Name. Note: If no author is available, use the first few words of the image title.
Hossler, F. (n.d.). Human Brain. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/photos/brain/
Lobes of the Brain. (n.d.). [Diagram] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobes_of_the_brain
[Untitled Image of a Chest]. (n.d.). [X-ray photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.heartfailurematters.org/EN/UnderstandingHeartFailure/Pages/174.aspx
Buggey, T. (2007, Summer). Storyboard for Ivan's Morning Routine. [Diagram]. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Carl Jung. [Photograph] (n.d.). Retrieved from Britannica Concise Encyclopedia in Credo Reference.
Image author's Last name, Image author's First name initial. (Year [if available, otherwise n.d.]). Description or title of image[Image format]. In First name initial, Last name of author or editor, Book title (page range). Edition rather than first. Publishing place: Publisher, publishing year. NOTE: If no author is available, use the first few words of the image title. If no year available, write n.d. for no date.
n.d. Brain [diagram]. In C. R. Noback, The Human Nervous System. 4th ed. &McGraw Hill, 1991.
n.d. Lifespan Differences/Change Across Years [Diagram]. In U. Lindenberger, The Center for Lifespan Psychology at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development. International Journal of Psychology, 42(4), 229-242.
If you reuse an image (table, figure, diagram, photograph, etc.) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note at the end of an image caption. Pages 150-167 of the APA Publication Manual (6th edition) offer some examples of citing reproduced images within captions.
Example: Figure 3.
A credibility judgment is arrived at within the larger context of one's background, prior knowledge, assumptions and biases, as one performs a series of iterative assessments based on one's defined need, specific attributes of the source and rules of thumb that have worked successfully in the past. From "Inquiry evaluation," by D. Abilock, 2010, Knowledge Quest, 38, p.37. Copyright 2010 by Debbie Abilock. Reprinted with permission.
If you adapt an illustration to create your own figure, change the wording of the caption to show your contribution.
Example: Figure 3.
A credibility judgment is arrived at within the larger context of one's background, prior knowledge, assumptions and biases, as one makes interim decisions based on one's defined need, specific attributes of the source and rules of thumb that have worked successfully in the past. Adapted from "Inquiry evaluation," by D. Abilock, 2010, Knowledge Quest, 38, p.37. Copyright 2010 by Debbie Abilock.
Note: Credit for the examples above goes to the Noodle Tools Support Center.
All in-text citations are usually cited as (Author's last name, year of publication).
For images, you would cite the (image author's last name, year of publication).
In addition to assigning proper credit for images in captions or in-text (as discussed elsewhere in this guide), you should attempt to contact the image owner/creator and ask for permission to use it. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.
If your project is strictly for class use, then Fair Use guidelines will probably exempt you from obtaining permission. If in doubt, please discuss the matter with your instructor.
You do not need to obtain permission to use images that are in the public domain (after 70+ years).
When citing an image taken from Google Images, you must click onto the image and go to the website it has originated from. This is where you will find the information needed to cite the image.
This informative Video offers Step-by-Step Instructions on Citing Google Images. It was uploaded on August 1, 2012 by VWilsonHHSLibrary.